We’re seeking an intern for the legislative session to support our policy advocacy in the Vermont State House this winter. Learn more about the legislative internship.

We’re also seeking law students for our 10-week, full-time summer internships expected to begin late-May or early-June 2023. Read more about the summer internships.

Vermont Legal Aid attorney Rebecca Plummer spoke on Vermont Public radio about the end of the Vermont Emergency Rental Assistance Program (VERAP). “We expect it [rate of evictions] to explode if the state doesn’t take steps to help people in this situation,” she told host Connor Cyrus.

Friday, September 30, 2022, is the last day to apply for VERAP help. For current recipients, many will see reduced assistance and funding that will end soon. Learn more about the timeline. September 30 is also the last day to apply for the Transitional Housing Program.

Vermont Legal Aid is asking the state to add funding and plans to help Vermonters who may end up facing eviction or homelessness when the financial help ends.

If you need advice about your housing situation, visit and contact us.

Judge Peter W. Hall Integrity Award: At the end of April, Eric Avildsen was awarded the first-ever Judge Peter W. Hall Integrity Award from the Young Lawyers Division of the Vermont Bar Association. Judge Hall died of cancer in March 2021 and the award, in addition to honoring Judge Hall, is intended to highlight the critical role of integrity in the legal profession. The award goes to an individual “who exhibits the exceptional characteristics for which Judge Hall was best known: integrity, humility, empathy, good humor, love of Vermont and a steadfast commitment to public service and the rule of law.” At a Young Lawyers Division event, presenters noted that Avildsen received more than 40 letters in support of his nomination for this inaugural award.

  The executive director of Vermont Legal Aid (VLA), Eric Avildsen, will retire at the end of October 2022.

Avildsen has been executive director since 1988, when he moved to Vermont from Massachusetts. Under his direction, the size of staff and breadth of legal work undertaken has increased significantly. VLA now has a staff of 89, is organized into 11 projects and has an annual budget of over $9.5 million.   Board Chair Robert Appel, who has served with Avildsen for the past 10 years, said, “In my capacity as board chair, it has been a great pleasure to work together with Eric Avildsen these past 10 years to increase access to justice in our communities. Under his leadership, Vermont Legal Aid and its sister organization, Legal Services Vermont, have both grown tremendously across the entire state through its five regional offices. Eric is certainly leaving the organization stronger than ever. It’s a privilege to count him as both a colleague and a friend.” The Board is looking forward to finding a worthy successor.   Avildsen has dedicated his entire career to working in legal services, first as a VISTA attorney focused on utility law, then at Central Massachusetts Legal Services in Worcester as a poverty law Staff Attorney and Managing Attorney, before coming to Vermont. He has a Law degree from the Franklin Pierce Law School at the University of New Hampshire.   Avildsen said he has given the Board of VLA a long lead time to find a new executive director and to be able to provide support and orientation for the new director. He stated that it has been an honor to work with VLA’s dedicated and talented staff doing such important work as well as the organization’s engaged and active board.   VLA Deputy Director David Koeninger noted, “It’s not hyperbole to say that over the past 33 years, no one has contributed more to the quest to increase access to justice in Vermont than Eric Avildsen.” In particular, he has appreciated Avildsen’s forward-thinking leadership, which has defined the organization over time and also in a crisis. “Eric’s support for the program’s advocacy has given VLA an outstanding reputation as a law firm not only in Vermont but nationally,” he said. “And I most admire Eric for the way he handled our operations when faced with the Covid-19 pandemic. He kept the program running smoothly and placed the safety of our staff as his number one priority, so that staff could focus on making sure that clients received service in the most difficult of times.”   A search committee comprised of board members and representatives of the staff has begun the process of identifying a successor, in partnership with Patricia Pap, the executive director at Management Information Exchange. Information about the position and search can be found here.   Avildsen says that making the decision to leave was very difficult. “I have been incredibly fortunate to be able to do a job I love, working side-by-side with such wonderful people. VLA did an incredible job helping Vermont’s most vulnerable people through the pandemic and continues to be a very healthy and strong organization. The time is right to bring in new leadership to help VLA define its next chapter.”  

On April 26, 2022, WCAX-TV3 interviewed Eric Avildsen about his long tenure at Vermont Legal Aid

This Fair Housing Month commentary is by attorney Rachel Batterson, who directs the Housing Discrimination Law Project at Vermont Legal Aid.

It’s April. As the crocuses open their delicate petals in front of my house, home buying and spring cleaning are in full swing. Many days, it’s raining and a bit raw, but the grass is greener, and I’m reveling in the longer days. It’s also time again to celebrate Fair Housing Month and to think about what kinds of communities we want to build and live in. As Vermont uses federal stimulus money to build affordable housing all around the state, NIMBY (“not in my backyard”) reactions are cropping up like weeds.

So, I’m issuing a challenge. Be a YIMBY. Show up and say, “Yes, I do want affordable housing in my backyard.” Let’s make all of Vermont’s communities welcoming and inclusive for all.

The Fair Housing Act was a central part of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.’s civil rights platform and it faced more opposition than any other part of the Civil Rights Act. In fact, it was only days after Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. was assassinated that Congress finally found the political will to enact it. The Fair Housing Act makes it illegal to discriminate against someone in every type of home and in planning and zoning decisions.

The Fair Housing Act is as much about communities as it is about homes. Your home is your base, and it determines nearly everything else about your life: access to fresh food, green spaces, cultural amenities, environmental hazards, and even your social circle. Did you know that you can predict a child’s educational and economic attainment and long-term health by where they grow up?

That’s because, more than fifty years after the Fair Housing Act was enacted, we still segregate our neighborhoods by race and income. And then we put most of the environmental hazards in poor and BIPOC communities and most of the amenities in White, affluent ones. Vermonters of color are subjected to racialized harassment, microaggressions, and over-policing. If you haven’t already, check out the “I Am Vermont Too” Project and the work of Professors Stephanie Seguino and Nancy Brooks.

Vermont makes it harder for people of color to buy homes. Vermont’s 2020 Housing Needs Assessment shows that the rate of Black homeownership in Vermont is significantly lower than White homeownership. Homeownership rates for Black Vermonters are also significantly lower here than in the rest of the nation.

There’s been a lot of discussion lately about Vermont’s housing crisis. And it’s really bad. Finding a home is the hardest for people who rent. There just aren’t enough apartments. And if you do find one, the rent is as expensive as a mortgage. What do you do if you can’t afford that? NIMBY opposition to below-market rental housing, especially if the housing allows children, has limited or entirely excluded such housing from many of Vermont’s communities. You can wait years on waiting lists to find an affordable home—if you’re lucky. Most of those apartments are in lower income, lower opportunity neighborhoods.

Vermonters say they support affordable housing. But when it comes time to build that housing in their community, they fight it. Affordable housing is great, just not in my backyard. NIMBY opposition makes it expensive to build below market homes. So fewer homes get built and most of them in low-opportunity locations where there’s less opposition. This concentrates poverty. Middle- and upper-income children who grow up in neighborhoods where everyone is just like them aren’t well prepared for life. And low-income children are less prepared for the workforce. That’s bad for Vermont.

So, what do we do? Let’s make sure that every Vermont town, suburb, exurb, and village has a range of housing, appropriate to the scale of the town, affordable to the full range of Vermonters: from retail workers and early childhood educators to teachers and nurses to doctors, lawyers, businesspeople, and others with higher incomes.

Let’s create inclusive, welcoming communities throughout Vermont. Be a YIMBY.


FEBRUARY 17, 2022

Contacts: Kelli Kazmarski (kkazmarski@
Emily Kenyon (ekenyon@

Unemployment Insurance Lawsuit: Interim Agreement reached in Murphy et al v. VDOL

Relief should be coming soon for Vermonters experiencing emotional and financial stress caused by significant delays in first level appeal hearings at the Department of Labor. Vermont Legal Aid (VLA) and the Vermont Department of Labor (VDOL) have entered into an interim settlement agreement in the class action lawsuit filed in December 2021. The settlement agreement provides for a process to clear the backlog in unemployment appeals by May 1, 2022. The agreement also establishes benchmarks for progress and regularly reporting of VDOL data to VLA.  A link to the settlement agreement is here.

Vermont law requires VDOL to hold unemployment hearings within thirty days after someone files an appeal. However, nearly two years after the coronavirus pandemic hit the state, Vermonters were still waiting up to six months for their hearing. People don’t get unemployment benefits while their appeal is pending, so these continued delays were devastating for out-of-work Vermonters. For folks appealing wrongful overpayment notices, the stress of having thousands of dollars owed to VDOL, while waiting up to six months to have an appeal heard, was also overwhelming, sometimes seriously impacting mental health.

After months of trying to resolve these issues, VLA filed a class action lawsuit on December 1, 2021, on behalf of Vermonters who were still waiting as long as six months to have appeal hearings held. At a status conference held just after the case was filed, the parties were ordered to discuss a possible settlement as the appeal delay issues which were the subject of the lawsuit were of grave concern for the court and the people of Vermont.  In those discussions, it was quickly apparent that the Department was genuinely interested in resolving the appeal delay issue and understood the urgency of the issue for Vermonters suffering from ongoing delays.

The Department’s efforts to remedy the appeal delays, including making internal procedural changes and hiring more administrative law judges to hear appeals, have already made a difference. Recent data shows significant improvement in average wait times for claimants waiting to have appeal hearings. The Department anticipates continued improvement in the next few months with the changes it has already made. “We appreciate the hard work the Department has put into responding to the dire needs of unemployed Vermonters to have appeal hearings held quickly. Those hearings are often the key to unlocking critical benefits a household needs when someone has suddenly lost their income through no fault of their own,” explained Kelli Kazmarski, one of the attorneys from Vermont Legal Aid representing the Plaintiffs.

While the interim agreement is in effect, the litigation is on hold to allow the Department to continue to implement its plans to eliminate appeal delays. During that time, the Department will report its progress on a weekly basis to VLA and must use best efforts to attain certain benchmarks over the next few months. Either party may ask the court to intervene after good faith effort to resolve any problems or failures to comply with the agreement. Barring unforeseen events, the parties hope to reach final settlement in the lawsuit by this summer.


DECEMBER 1, 2021

Kelly Murphy et al v. Michael Harrington, Commissioner, and VT Dept. of Labor

On December 1, 2021, Vermont Legal Aid Inc. (VLA) filed a class action lawsuit in Washington Superior Court against the Vermont Department of Labor (VDOL) based on extensive delays in scheduling unemployment benefit appeals in violation of the law. The lawsuit requests an order from the Court to compel VDOL to come into compliance with the law.

Vermont law requires VDOL to hold unemployment hearings within thirty days after someone files an appeal. However, nearly two years after the coronavirus pandemic hit the state, VDOL is still failing to comply with this mandate. Instead, Vermonters must wait almost six months for their hearing. People don’t get unemployment benefits while their appeal is pending, so these continued delays are devastating for out-of-work Vermonters. There is no question that VDOL is completely out of compliance with the law.

“Many of our clients were wrongfully denied unemployment compensation, wrongfully terminated from their unemployment compensation, or wrongfully issued huge overpayment notices,” says Kelli Kazmarski, VLA attorney in the Poverty Law Project. “These delays are violating not only state law, but also Vermonters’ due process rights. People are waiting months and months without benefits just to be heard before these errors can be corrected. That’s simply unacceptable.”

VLA has been pushing the DOL to resolve this issue since at least January 2021. Over the summer of 2021, VDOL made assurances to advocates that it had a plan, and that it expected to make substantial progress in resolving the unlawful delay in appeal hearings by the end of September 2021. Yet, that still has not happened. In fact, the data shows that these delays in holding appeal hearings have continued. Over 600 unemployed Vermonters are waiting five or six months for their appeal hearing.

As plaintiff Joshua Webb explains, these delays have a considerable impact: “What the Department of Labor doesn’t seem to understand is that some promise of receiving any benefits I am due in the future does not pay my rent or other bills right now. Getting a lump sum of benefits I was owed six months after I appeal is not that helpful if I am already homeless by the time I receive the benefits!”

Read the Complaint.

This commentary is by attorney Sandra Paritz, who directs the Poverty Law Project at Vermont Legal Aid.

Years ago, when my 3-year-old son first saw someone sleeping in the doorway of a building in the cold, he asked: Why is he sleeping there? Won’t he be too cold? Why doesn’t he have a home? Why doesn’t someone help him? Why are we not helping him?

I always tried to answer my children’s questions honestly. So I said: He does not have a home. Yes, it is too cold. There is no good reason for him not to have a home; it is wrong. Someone should help him. We should help him.

My son would not stop asking questions. He was crying. He could not keep walking down the street as if nothing happened. How could I?

What are the stories that we learn to tell ourselves to keep walking? We do not say them out loud, but maybe they are something like, “This is someone who wasn’t able to follow the rules, someone who did not manage their money well, or maybe they committed a crime that led them to this place.”

Of course, when we say these things out loud, we often know those stories are incomplete and our reasons inadequate. The stories we tell ourselves shouldn’t allow us to ignore people’s humanity.

I work at Vermont Legal Aid, where we represent people experiencing homelessness or at imminent risk of homelessness. I sometimes find myself advising people who, like me, are working hard to care for their children, pay their bills, and do all the normal things I do every day. But unlike me, they may not have a home to return to at night.

There is no way to justify this reality. It is what keeps those of us who work with housing-insecure people awake at night. Once you know the real story behind a person who is homeless, you cannot tell yourself the false and simplified narratives that allow you to just keep walking.

According to a January 2019 Vermont Legal Aid report, about 70 percent of evictions happen because tenants simply cannot afford to pay their rent. Vermont ranks fifth in the nation for having the largest housing affordability gap, and that problem is getting worse in the current housing market.

No one deserves to be homeless — regardless of how they got there. We all know what any 3-year-old would tell you: It is just horrifically wrong that a human being is sleeping on the street, and no one is helping them.

In ”A Dry White Season,” Marlon Brando said the law and justice can be described as distant cousins. Sometimes, when I see that the law regularly allows people to be evicted into homelessness, often for no reason, that statement rings true. But I think it is more accurate to say that the law reflects our culture, and sometimes it takes time and political courage for our culture to evolve.

In 1999, the Vermont Supreme Court held that the prohibition on same-sex marriage violated the Vermont Constitution. The Legislature’s efforts to fix it culminated in emotionally charged debates that finally resulted in the civil union statute in 2000.

Nine years later, when the Legislature took up same-sex marriage, there were enough votes to override the governor’s veto and to make the right to same-sex marriage into law. With advocacy and commitment from our political leaders, our culture had evolved to the understanding that recognizing same-sex marriage was simply the right thing to do.

Similarly, our cultural understanding of homelessness is evolving. For many years, those who witnessed people becoming homeless have argued that housing is a basic human right; that to build healthy, thriving communities, housing for all must be our top priority.

But historically, many who did not live or work in proximity to people experiencing homelessness did not share that view. The pandemic has begun to change that. Just recently, President Biden declared that housing should be a right, and Housing and Urban Development Secretary Marcia Fudge has urged that “housing is infrastructure.” Gov. Scott has characterized his housing budget as “the greatest investment in housing in the history of Vermont.”

Vermont’s efforts to house all who were homeless during the pandemic allowed us to have one of the lowest infection rates before vaccines became available. Numerous studies show that housing is essential to health, and that homelessness causes and exacerbates trauma, mental illness, chronic health conditions and substance use disorders.

We have the tools to address these problems. It is time for the law to reflect what we now know to be true — that housing for all must be recognized as a basic human right.

See a sampling of voicemails received from Vermonters who need help accessing the VERAP rent assistance program. Client names and identifying details have been removed. These clients have allowed us to share these transcribed messages.

September 24, 2021

On behalf of our clients at Vermont Legal Aid, we are relieved to hear that Governor Scott has authorized extending General Assistance (GA) emergency housing for an additional 30 days. 

Vermont is still suffering the effects of COVID-19, and people experiencing homelessness are particularly vulnerable to becoming severely ill, even if they are vaccinated. Depriving them of this critical benefit would have been arbitrary and irrational in light of current conditions, and contrary to the intent of the Legislature.

Housing is health. And although Vermont is making historic investment in affordable housing development, that housing is not available yet, so shelter in motels is all that our vulnerable neighbors experiencing homelessness have for now. We look forward to working with the Administration and other service providers to effectively address the housing and homelessness crisis we face in Vermont.

We thank the advocates, including youth advocates, legislators, and people with lived experience who joined our call for this extension, and in so doing sent a powerful message to Governor Scott about who we are as a statewide community.

Shelter is a basic necessity that no one should go without. And this pandemic continues to teach us that when we avoid evictions and homelessness, our communities are stronger, healthier, safer and more prosperous.

Vermont Legal Aid and our community partners, along with the tireless staff at the Economic Services Department offices, are immediately getting to work to help ensure Vermonters living in the motels access the 30-day extension. Anyone who has trouble extending their stay should call Vermont Legal Aid at 1-800-889-2047.

Visit the website for updates.


August 20, 2021

For AHS: Geoffrey Pippenger, geoffrey.pippenger@
For VLA: Jessica Radbord, (802) 383-2208, jradbord@
Mairead O’Reilly, 802-383-2225, mcoreilly@



The Agency of Human Services and Vermont Legal Aid are pleased to announce that they have reached a settlement in the General Assistance (GA) emergency housing program lawsuit, Gray-Rand v. Vermont Agency of Human Services, No. 2:21-cv-178 (D. Vt.).  As a result of the settlement, the parties stipulated to dismiss the case, which was granted by the Honorable J. Christina Reiss of the U.S. District Court for Vermont.

Last year, in response to the pandemic, the State significantly expanded eligibility, including the definition of what qualifies as a disability, making more Vermonters eligible to stay temporarily in hotels and motels.Today’s agreement represents mutually agreed upon changes to emergency housing and reinforces the State’s previous commitment to an expanded definition of who is eligible for assistance. 

Per the settlement, eligibility for the GA program for persons with disabilities will be expanded, and a variance process will be formalized for cases where an applicant’s health or welfare would be at risk due to their disability if they were unsheltered.  An easy-to-use form has been designed for people with disabilities to document eligibility. Notices of decision will inform applicants of the new variance process.

Department for Children and Families (DCF) Commissioner Sean Brown said: “We are happy to have reached this agreement and believe that it will serve Vermonters well. Today’s agreement will now allow us to continue the critical work of restructuring the way we provide emergency housing to those Vermonters experiencing homelessness and housing insecurity. This means we can move forward with development of a plan—in collaboration with communities and stakeholders across the state—to transition to a system that provides more stable shelter and support services like food assistance, rental assistance, and mental health care.”  

Vermont Legal Aid staff attorney Jessica Radbord describes the impact of this agreement: “People with disabilities who are experiencing homelessness will now be able to access GA benefits even if they are able to work.  We believe this will protect some truly vulnerable members of our community from suffering negative health consequences as a result of being unsheltered.  We’re also hopeful that the new form and procedures we’ve negotiated will ease access to this critical program. Vermont Legal Aid will continue to advocate for broad access to shelter and due process protections for Vermonters experiencing homelessness.”

Thomas, a participant in the General Assistance program, says: “During the six months that I was homeless before I came into the GA program, I was in and out of the hospital five times due to my disability.  Since I came into the GA program, I haven’t been in the hospital once.  It is saving my life.  I’m glad the rules are changing.  I have a serious disability, but I want to try to get a job, even if it’s just part-time.  The new rules will let me do that and keep a roof over my head.  I’m also hoping that the new form will make it easier for health care providers to help people like me demonstrate our eligibility.”

“Persons experiencing homelessness can call our Department for assistance at 800-479-6151,” said Commissioner Brown. Attorney Radbord encourages anyone experiencing or at risk of homelessness to request legal assistance from Vermont Legal Aid by calling 800-889-2047.

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