The Housing Discrimination Law Project (HDLP) at Vermont Legal Aid works to stop housing discrimination and to protect Vermonters' right to choose where they live. The project recently updated its brochures in English and eight other languages. Staff also produced short videos in English and five other languages. Funding for the videos came from the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. Follow this link to see them.

Vermont Health Connect Insurance Companies Ask to Raise Premium Prices;
Vermont Legal Aid’s Health Care Advocate Encourages Public Comments

Press Release / May 13, 2019 - updated June 17, 2019

Contact: Mike Fisher, Chief Health Care Advocate
Vermont Legal Aid

MONTPELIER, VT – Today, the Green Mountain Care Board started considering whether to raise health insurance premium prices for individual and small employer plans including Vermont Health Connect plans. These plans cover nearly 80,000 Vermonters.

Blue Cross Blue Shield of Vermont asked to raise next year’s premium prices by 15.6%, on average. MVP Health Care asked to raise premium prices by 8.5% on average. The price increases vary by plan.

The Green Mountain Care Board must consider public comments when deciding the 2020 premium prices. You can tell the board what you think of the proposed prices. Visit our webpage on How the Public Can Participate ( to learn how to give public comments to the board. Your comments will be part of the public record.

“The Board will hear from insurance executives, actuaries and lawyers; they need to hear from you too,” said Mike Fisher, Vermont’s Chief Health Care Advocate. “Last year, 197 Vermonters submitted public comments for the Vermont Health Connect premium review process and the Green Mountain Care Board referred to these comments in their decision. We’re glad to help Vermonters understand the process, so everyone has a voice.”

The public comment period for these plans ends in late July.

Vermonters with premium subsidies may pay more or less next year. For these Vermonters, changes to how much they have to pay are mostly based on income, family size and which plan they choose during the next open enrollment.

If you have questions about your health insurance, health care access, or about how you can give a public comment, contact the Office of the Health Care Advocate at 1-800-917-7787.

The Office of the Health Care Advocate (HCA) is a project of Vermont Legal Aid. The HCA provides free help to all Vermonters with questions or problems with health insurance or access to health care. The HCA works to improve Vermonters’ access to quality affordable health care through individual and systemic advocacy.

Vermont Legal Aid (VLA) is a non-profit law firm that provides legal advice and services to individuals and families throughout Vermont who are facing a civil legal problem that threatens their rights, shelter, job, health, or well-being. VLA began serving clients in 1968.

Vermont Legal Aid is holding free Advance Planning Workshops around the state. Seniors who qualify can meet with a lawyer and complete a simple will, a financial power of attorney and a medical advance directive. These are three important documents used for looking ahead and planning for the future.

To qualify for these workshops, you must be 60 years old or older and you must be a Vermont resident. There are also some income and asset restrictions.

Visit our legal help website to learn more about these free advance planning events.

In Vermont, approximately 1,700 eviction cases are filed every year. The number one cause of eviction is falling behind on rent. In most cases, families lose their housing, leading to increased rates of homelessness, unemployment, mental and physical illness, and financial and housing instability.

On January 16, 2019, Vermont Legal Aid released a report, Eviction in Vermont: A Closer Look, examining the problem and calling for policy solutions to reduce evictions and the deepening poverty caused by them.

This report marks the most comprehensive attempt to date to study evictions in Vermont. Its key findings are as follows:

One in 44 (2.25%) renting households had an eviction filed against them in 2016. In 70% of the cases, unpaid rent was the only issue (as opposed to violating the lease or evicting “without cause”). In cases where unpaid rent caused the eviction, the median amount of rent due was $2,000. In three-quarters of the cases, the plaintiff (landlord) had a lawyer, and the defendant (tenant) did not. Three-quarters of households that had an eviction filed against them were evicted.

In the report, the voices of tenants explain how eviction is a kind of accelerant for poverty: it comes out of poverty, and it creates even more. Research has shown that even a year after eviction, parents and children are more likely to suffer from depression, stress, and negative health outcomes than their non-evicted peers. Eviction can significantly damage a tenant’s subsequent employment, housing and credit prospects.

For landlords, evictions reflect a loss in rental income, lost time in court, and a financial cost for court and attorney fees. Evictions also cost Vermont taxpayers resources through additional burden on the court system and, when an eviction leads to homelessness, through funds needed for emergency housing and shelters. Taking a more proactive approach to prevent evictions would save money for landlords and taxpayers.

The report recommends the following policy changes to address this issue:

When a tenant falls behind on rent, provide adequate financial supports to help tenants who can maintain the tenancy long-term come current and avoid eviction. We estimate that an annual amount of $800,000 strategically invested in back rent support could cut Vermont’s eviction rate by over 50%. Once a case is filed, increase legal representation of defendants in eviction cases or make it easier for defendants to capably represent themselves. Expand and develop programs to help tenants manage their rental payments. Reduce the number of tenants who fall behind on rent by addressing the broader housing affordability crisis.

“Taken together, we believe that these recommendations would reduce Vermont’s rate of evictions and homelessness and prevent the hardships that occur for both landlords and tenants when a tenancy is terminated,” said Vermont Legal Aid Staff Attorney Jessica Radbord, who is one of the authors of the report. Follow this link to download the full report and recommendations.

Do you live in the Northeast Kingdom?

Each month, Vermont Legal Aid attorney Kelli Kazmarski is available in Newport, Vt., to discuss your legal questions about housing, divorce, custody, debt collection and more. The free legal clinic at the Orleans County Restorative Justice Center is usually held on the first Wednesday of the month from 10 a.m. to 1 p.m.

Because of the holidays, January’s clinic will be January 9th. The February clinic is scheduled for February 6th.

The Restorative Justice Center is located at 79 Coventry Street in Newport – next to the post office. Call Restorative Justice to make an appointment at 802-487-9327. Appointments are scheduled on a first-come, first-served basis.

“The clinics are a way for people to sit face-to-face and talk with someone about their issues,” Kazmarski says. “I have had people come in with problems ranging from debt collection to wills, and from family law matters to benefits issues. I think people in the community really enjoy this service.”

Kazmarski is also part of a rotating roster of volunteer lawyers who do free legal clinics in St. Johnsbury, Vt. These are usually held on the first Monday of each month from 6 - 8 p.m. the Community Restorative Justice Center. An appointment is recommended. Call 802-748-2977.

Old criminal records prevent many Vermonters from obtaining jobs, housing or educational opportunities.

If you have a past criminal conviction, or a charge that has been dismissed, you may want to figure out whether you can “expunge” your criminal record. Through the expungement process, the State of Vermont allows for specific convictions and dismissed charges to be wiped from your record after a certain amount of time has passed. There are a couple of different sealing or expungement laws, and the requirements are a bit different for each.

See our web page about Sealing or Expunging Your Criminal Record in Vermont for information on this topic, free expungement clinics, and how to reach us for help.

The open enrollment period for buying (or changing) a 2019 Vermont Health Connect plan is November 1 to December 15, 2018. When you sign up for a health plan during this time, your plan will start January 1.

Vermont Health Connect has the details for 2019 health plans on their website. This includes a plan comparison tool.

Big Changes, Big Opportunities in 2019

For 2019, everyone needs to be aware of the big changes in how much Vermont Health Connect plans cost.

The cost of silver plans on Vermont Health Connect went up a lot in 2019. On average, in 2019 families will get $1,200 more Advance Premium Tax Credit (APTC). This means you can get a gold plan for about the same cost as a silver plan. Most uninsured Vermonters can get a bronze plan for a very low or no premium.

If you don’t get Advance Premium Tax Credit and want to stay on silver plan, you should enroll directly with Blue Cross Blue Shield of Vermont or MVP on a “Reflective Silver” plan. The Reflective Silver plans are for Vermonters without Advance Premium Tax Credit. They are very similar to Vermont Health Connect plans, but they cost less. Remember, you cannot get APTC to help pay for Reflective Silver plans. You should only enroll in Reflective Silver plans if you are not eligible for APTC.

Take Action Before December 15

The 2019 changes impacts each household differently. Take the following steps to find the best plan for you:

Find out what Vermont Health Connect plan you are currently enrolled on. If you are on a silver plan, find out what level cost-sharing you have (Silver 94, Silver 87, Silver 77, Silver 73, or Silver 70). If you aren’t sure which plan or level you have, check your monthly premium bill, call your insurance company or call Vermont Health Connect. Review your expected 2019 yearly income. Find out if you are eligible for Advance Premium Tax Credit for 2019. Enter your information in the plan comparison tool to see if you are eligible for Advance Premium Tax Credit and find the best plan for your household. Call Vermont Health Connect by December 15 to change plans and update your income or other household information. If you need help, find an Assister near you or call Vermont Health Connect. Contact us at the Office of the Health Care Advocate if you have any questions or problems. Need More Information?

Check out these common Q&As about Vermont Health Connect, visit our Vermont Health Connect pages, and contact us at the Office of the Health Care Advocate (HCA) with any questions.

Call 1-800-917-7787 to speak with a health care advocate. Or fill out our Help Request Form. The HCA is a free resource available to help all Vermonters solve problems related to health care.

The Green Mountain Care Board is reviewing proposed health insurance premium price increases for individual and small employer plans including Vermont Health Connect plans. (Small employers have less than 100 employees.) These plans cover nearly 80,000 Vermonters.

Blue Cross Blue Shield of Vermont is asking to increase premium prices by 7.5%, on average, for 2019. MVP Health Care is asking to increase premium prices by 10.9% on average. The price increases vary by plan.

Vermonters who get subsidies to help with premium prices may pay more or less in 2019 than in 2018. Changes to subsidized Vermonters’ premium prices are mostly based on changes in income, family size and which plan they choose during the next open enrollment. If you have questions about premium prices, contact the Office of the Health Care Advocate.

The Green Mountain Care Board will decide whether to change the premium prices for 2019. You can tell the board what you think they should do. Visit our How the Public Can Participate page for details on the public hearings and how to submit public comments to the board online, by mail or by phone. Your comments will be part of the public record. 

The Green Mountain Care Board must consider public comments when setting the 2019 premium prices. The public comment period ends July 25, 2018.

If you have questions about your health insurance, health care or about how you can give a public comment, contact the Office of the Health Care Advocate.

The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) has renewed funding for Vermont Legal Aid’s (VLA’s) Housing Discrimination Law Project (HDLP). The $300,000 grant enables Legal Aid to conduct fair housing investigations and representation throughout Vermont. Under its current three-year fair housing grant, VLA has helped more than 250 people complaining of housing discrimination and carried out more than 150 fair housing investigations in several Vermont communities, also commenting on nine separate zoning and planning projects around the state that had potentially adverse impacts on groups protected by fair housing laws.

“We are very pleased to learn that Legal Aid will continue to be active in the efforts to ensure that all persons have equal access to housing in Vermont. Fair housing is a fundamental civil right,” said Karen Richards, Executive Director of the Vermont Human Rights Commission.

“I was so happy when I won and got to keep my dog, I was almost in tears,” said Jerry Tallman, who Legal Aid represented in getting a reasonable accommodation. “If anyone else is in my shoes, I’m glad there is an answer for them, that they can call and get help like I did.”

“Our fair housing testing and calls to us indicate that Vermont is struggling to accept its increasing diversity,” said Rachel Batterson, Project Director of Vermont Legal Aid’s Housing Discrimination Law Project. “Vermont’s low vacancy rate and the right to evict for no reason exacerbate the problem. Housing discrimination hits Vermonters with children, people of color, New Americans, and people with disabilities particularly hard.

“Every person deserves a fair chance to live in a neighborhood free from discrimination,” said HUD Secretary Ben Carson in HUD’s January 23 press release. “The funds announced today will allow our fair housing partners on the ground to combat housing discrimination and ensure every person has equal access to housing.”

“Fair housing is central to sustainable, successful communities,” said Joshua Hanford, Deputy Commissioner of the Department of Housing and Community Development. “We’re glad that Legal Aid will continue to work on equal access for all Vermonters.”

“Ensuring that people are treated fairly is central to Vermont Legal Aid’s mission,” said Vermont Legal Aid Executive Director Eric Avildsen. “Nobody should be denied equal access to housing, simply because of their race, ethnicity, disability, or having children. This new HUD grant enables us to continue to represent Vermonters who are discriminated against and improves the enforcement of fair housing laws generally.”

For more information about fair housing law, visit  For more information about HUD’s Fair Housing programs, see HUD’s full press release at

Renters at Risk: The Cost of Substandard Housing

Despite regulations intended to protect them from substandard housing conditions, many Vermont tenants still live in unsafe and unhealthy homes. Today, Vermont Legal Aid released a report, Renters at Risk: The Cost of Substandard Housing, to examine the problem and call for policy solutions to address substandard housing.

The report was the result of data analysis and interviews with tenants, advocates, and public officials. Our key findings are as follows.

1. Tenants who suffer from the various impacts of unsafe and unhealthy housing conditions experience increased health care usage, mental health problems, disruption to school and work, and homelessness.

2. The most common problems tenants face are pests and plumbing problems.

3. Threat of eviction and lack of affordable housing options often prevent tenants from reporting rental housing health code violations.

4. Town health officers are commonly unpaid volunteers without the time or experience necessary to address health code violations.

5. We can and should make changes to our code enforcement system.

In our report, the voices of nine tenants in the struggle for healthy housing reveal the long-lasting impacts of substandard housing. It is clear that their experiences with inadequate housing conditions are not isolated instances – many other renters throughout Vermont suffer serious problems in their rented homes. For example, Amberly, a tenant in Rutland, had to live with a severe rat infestation (see attached photo). It appeared that they were coming into her home from the outside through the basement.  Amberly set traps and did what she could, but had to live with rats -- in her home, in her kitchen, chewing on her possessions – for months before she could move out. Amberly developed hives and other medical issues in addition to handling the plain stress of a rat infesation, all while trying to juggle work and raising two small children.

“This kind of situation is too common, and it is not just a problem for tenants,” according to Maryellen Griffin, one of the attorneys at Vermont Legal Aid who worked with lead author Tessa Horan on the report. “These problems also hurt good landlords, towns, and taxpayers. The medical costs, the downward pressure on property values, the risk that the rats will continue to multiply and migrate to other buildings, not to mention the human suffering – these are problems for all of us.  Allowing our housing stock to continue to degrade threatens the health of our residents as well as the tax base and the viability and vibrancy of our towns.”

We are proposing legislation to address this issue using three strategies:

1. Strengthen Town Health Officers’ authority to issue orders and enforce them, and make it unlawful to re-rent an apartment if the landlord has not complied with the orders.

2. Direct the Department of Health to provide more coordinated support to Town Health Officers.

3. Create a statewide database of rental housing to collect better data about the problem.

As Jonathan Bond from Vermont Tenants Inc. said in the report, “If we’re going to have a really basic health code, I would like to see the basic health code being enforced, and right now it’s just not being enforced.”

To read our full report and list of recommendations to address the impacts of substandard housing on Vermont tenants, visit our website at